Most promising vaccines in development

Organisation

Pfizer/ BioNTech

Country

US/Germany

mRNA vaccine (it uses the virus

that causes colds in chimpanzees)

What type is it?

Probably available in limited

quantities by the end of 2020

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Oxford University/ AstraZeneca

Country

UK

Adenovirus vector vaccine

(delivered using a chimp

cold virus)

What type is it?

Interim results due in weeks and,

if good, limited quantities could

be available by the end of 2020

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Moderna

Country

US

mRNA vaccine

What type is it?

Interim data expected late

November. CEO has said it is

unlikely to be widely available

in the first quarter of 2021

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Novavax

Country

US

Protein adjuvant vaccine

(boosts immune system)

What type is it?

If phase 3 trials, which include

100,000 UK volunteers, go well,

there may be doses available in

the second half of next year

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Janssen Pharmaceuticals

(part of Johnson&Johnson)

Country

US

Adenovirus vector vaccine

What type is it?

In phase 3 trials and expected

to deliver in the second half of

next year if all goes well

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Valneva

Country

France

Traditional approach with a

whole, inactivated virus

What type is it?

Doses to be manufactured in

Scotland and available in second

half of 2021 if safety and efficacy

data is good

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Sinovac

Country

China

Traditional approach with a

whole, inactivated virus

What type is it?

In phase 3 trials in Brazil,

Indonesia and Turkey. Interim

data expected in November, but

Brazil trial now on pause because

of a side-effect issue. Has already

been offered for emergency

vaccination in the Chinese city of

Jiaxing

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Sanofi/GSK

Country

France

Uses the same recombinant

protein-based technology as one

of Sanofi’s seasonal flu vaccines.

GSK contributes an adjuvant, that

can be mixed in with a vaccine to

trigger a stronger immune reaction

What type is it?

Phase 3 trials due to start in

December involving more than

30,000 volunteers in different

countries. Approval expected

by June 2021

When could it

be ready?

Organisation

Country

What type is it?

When could it be ready?

Pfizer/ BioNTech

mRNA vaccine (using

genetic code of virus)

Probably available in limited

quantities by the end of 2020

US/Germany

Oxford University/

AstraZeneca

UK

Adenovirus vector vaccine

(it uses the virus that causes

colds in chimpanzees)

Interim results due in weeks and,

if good, limited quantities could

be available by the end of 2020

Moderna

US

mRNA vaccine

Interim data expected late

November. CEO has said it is

unlikely to be widely available

in the first quarter of 2021

Novavax

US

Protein adjuvant vaccine

(boosts immune system)

If phase 3 trials, which include

100,000 UK volunteers, go well,

there may be doses available in

the second half of next year

Janssen Pharmaceuticals

(part of Johnson&

Johnson)

US

Adenovirus vector vaccine

In phase 3 trials and expected

to deliver in the second half of

next year if all goes well

Valneva

France

Traditional approach with a

whole, inactivated virus

Doses to be manufactured in

Scotland and available in second

half of 2021 if safety and efficacy

data is good

Sinovac

China

Traditional approach with a

whole, inactivated virus

In phase 3 trials in Brazil,

Indonesia and Turkey. Interim

data expected in November, but

Brazil trial now on pause because

of a side-effect issue. Has already

been offered for emergency

vaccination in the Chinese city of

Jiaxing

Sanofi/GSK

France

Uses the same recombinant

protein-based technology as

one of Sanofi’s seasonal flu

vaccines. GSK contributes an

adjuvant, that can be mixed

in with a vaccine to trigger

a stronger immune reaction

Phase 3 trials due to start in

December involving more than

30,000 volunteers in different

countries. Approval expected

by June 2021