Action plan for the UK to achieve net zero by 2050

2020s

2030s

2040s

Land Use

Afforestation and peatland restoration

Agriculture

Healthier diets, reduced food waste,

tree growing and low-carbon farming practices

Waste

Reduce waste, increase

recycling, landfill ban

on biodegradable waste

Limit emissions from

combustion of non-bio

wastes, deploy measures

to reduce emissions

from waste water

Buildings

Efficiency, heat

networks, heat pumps

(new build, off gas,

hybrids)

Broad electrification,

expand heat networks,

gas grids potentially

switch to hydrogen

Road Transport

Ramp up EV market,

decisions on HGVs

Turn over fleets to zero-

emission vehicles; cars

and vans before HGVs

Infrastructure

Industrial CCS clusters,

decisions on gas grid

and HGV infrastructure,

expand vehicle charging

and electricity grids

Hydrogen supply for

industry and (potentially)

buildings, roll-out of

infrastructure for

hydrogen/electric HGVs,

more CCS infrastructure,

electricity network

expansion

Hydrogen

Begin large-scale

hydrogen production

with CCS

Widespread use of

hydrogen in industry, use

in backup electricity

generation, heavier

vehicles (eg HGVs,

trains) and (potentially)

heating on coldest days

Greenhouse gas removals

Develop options and

policy framework

Deployment of BECCS in

various forms,

demonstrate direct air

capture of CO2, other

removals depending

on progress

Electricity

Largely decarbonise

electricity; renewables,

flexibility, coal

phase-out

Expand electricity system,

decarbonise mid-merit/

peak generation

(eg using hydrogen),

deploy bioenergy with

CCS (BECCS)

Industry

Establish industrial CCS

and hydrogen clusters;

improve energy and

resource efficiency

Further CCS, widespread

use of hydrogen, some

electrification

Flourinated gases

Move almost completely away from use of F-gases

Aviation

Operational measures, new plane efficiency, lower

demand growth, limited sustainable biofuels

Shipping

Operational measures, new ship fuel efficiency,

use of ammonia

Co-benefits

Health benefits due to improved air quality, healthier

diets and more walking and cycling. Clean growth and

industrial opportunities. Improved biodiversity.

Improved resilience to climate change

2020s

2030s

2040s

Land Use Afforestation and peatland restoration

Agriculture Healthier diets, reduced food waste, tree growing and low-carbon farming practices

Waste Reduce waste, increase recycling, landfill

ban on biodegradable waste

Limit emissions from combustion of non-bio wastes,

deploy measures to reduce emissions from waste water

Buildings Efficiency, heat networks, heat pumps

(new build, off gas, hybrids)

Broad electrification, expand heat networks,

gas grids potentially switch to hydrogen

Road Transport Ramp up EV market,

decisions on HGVs

Turn over fleets to zero-emission vehicles;

cars and vans before HGVs

Infrastructure Industrial CCS clusters, decisions on

gas grid and HGV infrastructure, expand vehicle

charging and electricity grids

Hydrogen supply for industry and (potentially) buildings,

roll-out of infrastructure for hydrogen/electric HGVs,

more CCS infrastructure, electricity network expansion

Hydrogen Begin large-scale hydrogen

production with CCS

Widespread use of hydrogen in industry, use in backup

electricity generation, heavier vehicles (eg HGVs,

trains) and (potentially) heating on coldest days

Greenhouse gas removals Develop options

and policy framework

Deployment of BECCS in various forms,

demonstrate direct air capture of CO2,

other removals depending on progress

Industry Establish industrial CCS and hydrogen

clusters; improve energy and resource efficiency

Further CCS, widespread use of hydrogen,

some electrification

Electricity Largely decarbonise electricity;

renewables, flexibility, coal phase-out

Expand electricity system, decarbonise mid-merit/

peak generation (eg using hydrogen),

deploy bioenergy with CCS (BECCS)

Flourinated gases Move almost completely away from use of F-gases

Aviation Operational measures, new plane efficiency, lower demand growth, limited sustainable biofuels

Shipping Operational measures, new ship fuel efficiency, use of ammonia

Co-benefits Health benefits due to improved air quality, healthier diets and more walking and cycling. Clean

growth and industrial opportunities. Improved biodiversity. Improved resilience to climate change