Britain has voted by a substantial margin to leave the European Union. The picture that is emerging is of a heavily polarised country, with remain areas coming in more strongly for remain than expected, and leave areas more strongly for leave. Geographically, Scotland and London have voted overwhelmingly for remain, but outside the capital, every English region had a majority for leave.
Comparing the results to key demographic characteristics of the local authority areas, some patterns emerge more clearly than others. The best predictor of a vote for remain is the proportion of residents who have a degree. In many cases where there are outliers to a trend, the exceptions are in Scotland.
Although remain was strong almost everywhere in the capital, leave had a majority in the east London working class neighbourhoods of Havering, Barking and Dagenham, plus Bexley and a number of neighbouring areas in the Thames estuary. These were traditional Labour strongholds that swung to UKIP in the general election.
Voters in the Labour heartland of Liverpool city centre followed the official party line and backed remain. But the further you get from the city centre, the stronger leave becomes: 51.56% in Knowsley, 58.02% in St Helens and 63.9% in Wigan. Here, less affluent Labour voters were less loyal.
Newcastle-Gateshead is a tale of twin cities. North of the Tyne, where the Tories are the second-placed party, Newcastle opted for remain. Over the water, in poorer Gateshead, Ukip are the challengers, and leave carried the day.